美国统一州法委员会《统一侵权责任分担法》[中英文对照参考译本]
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Uniform Apportionment of Tort Responsibility Act
 
(Rule section·Last Revised or Amended in 2003)
 
美国统一州法委员会《统一侵权责任分担法》(2003年最后修订版)
 
 Copyright ©2003 by
 
NCCUSL(National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws)
 
说明:本文件由中国人民大学法学院民商法学专业博士生王竹制作,仅供个人学习、研究参考之用,请勿外传,后果自负。相关译文具体细节请参见注释。
 
第1条简称
 
本“法”被引用时应被称为《统一侵权责任分担法》
 
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
 
This [act] may be cited as the Uniform Apportionment of Tort Responsibility Act.
 
第2条定义
 
在本“法”中:
 
(1)“助成过错”包括助成过失、产品误用、不合理的未能避免或者减轻损害,以及自甘风险除非该风险已经在某一具有法律强制力的免除或者类似协议中被明示。
 
(2)“人”是指一个自然人、法人、企业联合、遗产、信托、合伙、有限责任公司、协会、合资企业、公众公司、政府,或者政府部门、代理以及所属分支机构,或者其他任何法律或商业实体。
 
(3)“被免责人”是指如果未因第8条(或第9条)被免除责任则要对请求权人关于人身损害或者财产损失的赔偿金负责的人
 
(4)“责任”,就关于人身损害或者财产损失的赔偿金而言,是指作为责任基础或者全部或部分抗辩的作为或者不作为的法律后果。
 
立法指南:如果本法第9条被采纳作为本法的一部分,第3款对“被免责人”定义中的括号就应该被去掉。如果未被采纳作为本法的一部分,但作为工人赔偿法律的修正案,那么括号及其中的文字就应该被删除并替换为参见工人赔偿法律修正条文的参照条款。如果第9条完全未被采纳,括号及其中的文字应该被删除。
 
SECTION 2. DEFINITIONS.
 
In this [act]:
 
(1) “Contributory fault” includes contributory negligence, misuse of a product, unreasonable failure to avoid or mitigate harm, and assumption of risk unless the risk is expressly assumed in a legally enforceable release or similar agreement.
 
(2) "Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, public corporation, government, or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity.
 
(3) “Released person” means a person that would be liable for damages to a claimant for personal injury or harm to property if the person had not been discharged from liability under Section 8 [or 9].
 
(4) “Responsibility”, with respect to a claim for damages for personal injury or harm to property, means the legal consequences of an act or omission that is the basis for liability or a defense in whole or in part.
 
Legislative Note: If Section 9 of this Act is adopted as part of this Act, the brackets in the definition of “released person” in paragraph (3) should be deleted. If it is not adopted as part of this Act but is adopted as an amendment to the workers’ compensation statutes, the brackets and words within should be deleted and replaced with a cross reference to the amended section of the workers’ compensation statute. If Section 9 is not adopted at all, both the brackets and words within should be deleted.
 
第3条助成过错的效力
 
(a)除本条(b)款规定的情形,在一场要求人身损害或者财产损失的赔偿金的诉讼中,如果基于的是过失或者其他请求权人可能面临基于助成过错的全部或者部分抗辩的请求,任何可归因于请求权人的助成过错按照基于第4条分配给他的责任百分比相应的减少请求权人本来可以被判决获得的恢复人身损害或者财产损失的损害赔偿金的数量。
 
(b)如果请求权人的助成过错(等同于或者)超过其他各方和造成请求权人人身损害或者财产损失责任已被确定的被免责人的责任总和,该请求权人不能获得任何赔偿。
 
(c)在陪审团审理中,法院应该指示陪审团注意其对质询书的回答将产生的法律效力,按照本法第4条,关涉请求权人基于本条(b)款获得损害赔偿的权利。
 
立法指南:本条(b)款括号的重要性在本条评论中有说明。基本上,立法是给出一种选择。可能选择三种比较过错的方案中的一种。本条评论对每种选择如何施行进行了说明。
 
(译者补充立法指南相关的评论部分:就修正的(比较过错)方案,有两种基本的界限种类。一种是当请求权人的过错比例与所有被告的过错比例相等时,请求权人便不得获得损害赔偿金;另一种是只有当请求权人的过错比例大于所有被告过错比例之和之时,请求权人才不能得获得损害赔偿金。)
 
SECTION 3. EFFECT OF CONTRIBUTORY FAULT.
 
(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b), in an action seeking damages for personal injury or harm to property based on negligence or on any other claim for which the claimant may be subject to a defense in whole or part based on contributory fault, any contributory fault chargeable to the claimant diminishes the amount that the claimant otherwise would be entitled to recover as compensatory damages for the injury or harm by the percentage of responsibility assigned to the claimant pursuant to Section 4.
 
(b) If the claimant’s contributory fault is [equal to or] greater than the combined responsibility of all other parties and released persons whose responsibility is determined to have caused personal injury to or harm to property of the claimant, the claimant may not recover any damages.
 
(c) In a jury trial, the court shall instruct the jury regarding the legal effect of its answers to interrogatories, made pursuant to Section 4, on a claimant’s right to recover damages under subsection (b).
 
Legislative Note: The significance of the brackets in subsection (b) is explained in the comments. Basically, the legislature is given a choice. It may choose one of three types of comparative fault plans. The comments explain how each choice may be implemented.
 
(Relative Comment:……With regard to modified plans, there are two basic types of thresholds. One bars a claimant from recovering any damages if the claimant’s share of fault equals that of the defendant(s); the other bars a claimant only if the claimant’s share is greater than that of the defendant(s). ……)
 
第4条确定赔偿金;归责
 
(a)在一场要求人身损害或者财产损失的赔偿金的诉讼中,涉及了超过一方或一个被免责人的责任时,法院应该指示陪审团对质询书进行回答,或者如果并无陪审团,作出裁决:
 
  (1)述明如果不考虑任何助成过错时,请求权人可能被判决获得的赔偿金数目。
 
  (2)针对每一请求述明,归属于每一造成了损害或者伤害的请求权人、被告和被免责人的所有责任方和被免责人的总责任百分比
 
  (3)考虑是否任何方或者被免责人的共同行为或者故意行为导致人身损害或者财产损失;并且
 
  (4)考虑其他有证据清楚证明的事实有必要基于第5条作出决定或者基于第6条进行判决登记
 
(b)在决定责任比例时,事实调查者应该考虑
 
  (1)各方和被确定应该负责的免责人的行为性质;和
 
  (2)行为和请求的赔偿金之间的因果关系范围。
 
(c)法院应该对基于另一方的作为或者不作为的某方责任范围作出决定,保证为向陪审团提交质询书或者基于本条(a)款作出裁决时各方被共同视为单独一方。
 
SECTION 4. FINDING DAMAGES; ATTRIBUTION OF RESPONSIBILITY.
 
(a) In an action to recover damages for personal injury or harm to property involving the responsibility of more than one party or a released person, the court shall instruct the jury to answer special interrogatories or, if there is no jury, make findings:
 
  (1) stating the amount of damages that a claimant would be entitled to recover if any contributory fault were disregarded;
 
  (2) stating, as to each claim, the percentage of the total responsibility of all the parties and released persons attributed to each claimant, defendant, and released person that caused the injury or harm;
 
  (3) regarding whether any of the parties or released persons acted in concert or with an intent to cause personal injury or harm to property; and
 
  (4) regarding any other issue of fact fairly raised by the evidence which is necessary to make a determination under Section 5 or enter judgment under Section 6.
 
(b) In determining percentages of responsibility, the trier of fact shall consider:
 
  (1) the nature of the conduct of each party and released person determined to be responsible; and
 
  (2) the extent of the causal relation between the conduct and the damages claimed.
 
(c) The court shall determine the extent to which the responsibility of one party, which is based on the act or omission of another party, warrants that the parties be treated as a single party for the purpose of submitting interrogatories to the jury or making findings under subsection (a).
 
第5条决定损害判决;重新分配无法受偿的份额
 
(a)根据第4条事实调查者回答了质询书或者作出裁定后,法院应该作出与确定的责任百分比一致的决定,包括任何判决给请求权人的金钱数量,被确定有责任的每一方应该单独负责的责任份额的数量,和应该归属于被免责人的数量。
 
(b)在法院根据本条(a)款作出决定后,请求权人,不迟于(填写申请提起新诉讼的时间允许范围内)(原告判决登记后90天),可以向法院提出确定是否所有或者部分责任方应该负责的单独份额不能合理受偿并要求重新分配。如果法院基于优势证据决定某方的份额不能合理受偿,法院应该作出裁决重新将不能受偿的份额分别分配给其他各方,包括请求权人,和任何被免责人。重新分配必须根据各方和被免责人各自的责任份额在整个责任百分比中可归属于各方的比例进行,包括请求权人,和任何被免责人,但不包括被重新分配的百分比。
 
(c) 责任被重新分配的一方,仍然对请求权人被重新分配给他的新增责任份额负责。清偿了基于本条(b)款分配的新增责任份额的一方,获得了从被重新分配份额的一方退还的权利。根据申请,判决中的法院根据第6条进行登记时,应该宣布源于重新分配产生的新权利和义务,包括任何关于代位权或者被担保地位的权利和义务。如果任何被重新分配的一方在被重新分配的份额上具有被担保地位,任何被重新分配的其他方具有相应比例的被担保地位。任何基于本款从被重新分配份额的一方获得的清偿均应该按照原重新分配的比例分配给被重新分配份额的各方。
 
(d)重新分配并不导致被免责人对任何被重新分配责任份额负责,除非免责或者其他协议有规定。
 
(e)如果重新分配的申请得到执行,任何一方均可以进行任何与该申请相关的发现行为。
 
SECTION 5. DETERMINING DAMAGE AWARD; REALLOCATION OF UNCOLLECTIBLE SHARE.
 
(a) After the trier of fact has answered interrogatories or made findings pursuant to Section 4, the court shall determine, in accordance with the percentages of responsibility found, the monetary amount of any award of damages to a claimant, the amount of the several share for which each party found liable is responsible, and any amount attributable to a released person.
 
(b) After the court has made its determinations pursuant to subsection (a), a claimant, no later than [the time permitted for filing a motion for new trial] [90 days after the entry of judgment for the plaintiff], may move the court to determine whether all or part of the amount of the several share for which a party is liable will not be reasonably collectible and request reallocation. If the court based on a preponderance of the evidence determines that the party’s share will not be reasonably collectible, the court shall make findings reallocating the uncollectible share severally to the other parties, including the claimant, and any released person. Reallocation must be made in the proportion that each party’s and released person’s respective percentage of responsibility bears to the total of the percentages of responsibility attributed to the parties, including the claimant, and any released person but not including the percentage being reallocated.
 
(c) A party whose liability is reallocated remains liable to a claimant for any additional share of responsibility allocated to the claimant. A party that discharges an additional share of responsibility allocated to it pursuant to subsection (b) has a right of reimbursement from the party from which the share was reallocated. Upon motion, the court in the judgment entered under Section 6 shall declare the rights and obligations resulting from the reallocation, including any rights and obligations with regard to subrogation or a secured position. If any party to whom reallocation has been made holds a secured position with regard to the share reallocated, each party to whom reallocation has been made has a proportionate share in the secured position. Any amount recovered under this subsection from a party whose liability has been reallocated must be distributed to each of the parties to whom the reallocation was made in the same proportion as the original reallocation.
 
(d) Reallocation does not make a released person liable for any reallocated share of responsibility unless the release or other agreement so provides. 
 
(e) If a motion for reallocation is made, any party may conduct discovery regarding any issue relevant to the motion.
 
第6条登记和修改判决
 
(a)在决定了判给请求权人赔偿金和每一被确定的有责方应该负责单独份额的数量,包括任何重新分配的份额,法院应该分别对每一被判决有责方登记责任,除非一下情形:
 
  (1)如果两个或者更多的被判决有责方的共同行为或者故意行为导致了请求权人的人身损害或者财产损失,法院应该对这几方的共同份额登记为连带责任。
 
  (2)如果某一被判决为有责方未能阻止他方故意造成请求权人的人身损害或者财产损失,法院应该对这几方的合并责任份额登记为连带责任。
 
  (3)如果一方被判决有责是因为基于本法第4条(c)款规定的另一方的作为或者不作为,法院应该对这几方的共同份额登记为连带责任。
 
  (4)如果除本法之外的本州任何法律要求法院应该记录判决为连带责任或相反的,应该使判决与法律一致
 
(b)如果法院在判决记录后同意了基于本法第5条重新分配的申请,法院应该修改记录以便宣布源于重新分配产生的新权利和义务,包括任何关于代位权或者被担保地位的权利和义务。
 
SECTION 6. ENTERING AND MODIFYING JUDGMENT.
 
(a) After determining an award of damages to a claimant and the amount of the several share, including any reallocated share, for which each party found liable is responsible, the court shall enter judgment severally against each party adjudged liable, except in the following situations:
 
  (1) If two or more parties adjudged liable acted in concert or with an intent to cause personal injury to, or harm to property of, the claimant, the court shall enter judgment jointly and severally against the parties for their joint share.
 
  (2) If a party is adjudged liable for failing to prevent another party from intentionally causing personal injury to, or harm to property of, the claimant, the court shall enter judgment jointly and severally against the parties for their combined shares of responsibility.
 
  (3) If a party is adjudged liable for the act or omission of another party under Section 4(c), the court shall enter judgment jointly and severally against the parties for their joint share.
 
  (4) If a statute of this state, other than this [act], so requires, the court shall enter judgment jointly and severally or otherwise conform the judgment to the statute.
 
(b) If a court grants a motion for reallocation pursuant to Section 5 after judgment is entered, the court shall modify the judgment to declare the rights and obligations resulting from the reallocation, including any rights and obligations with regard to subrogation or a secured position.
 
第7条分担与补偿的权利;第三人诉讼
 
(a)除非本条(b)款另有规定,根据本法对一方或者多方承担连带责任的一方,有权从另一连带责任方获得超过该方本应该负责的单独责任数额之外的超额分担。被寻求分担的一方并不对超过基于本法第5条决定的该方应该单独承担的金钱数量负责。
 
(b)一方基于本法第6条(a)款第(3)项因他方的作为或者不作为被判决有责的,有向该方寻求补偿的权利。
 
(c)一方基于本法面临对请求权人的人身损害或者财产损失负责时候,有以下权利:
 
(1)将请求权人为起诉但可能面临对请求权人的人身损害或者财产损失负责的人加入到诉讼中来;以及
 
(2)无论是否适当,从在该方被判决有责任的程序中未被确定责任但应该为请求权人的部分或者全部损害或者损失负责的他方寻求分担或者补偿。
 
(d)分担或者补偿的请求可以在原诉讼或者独立诉讼中主张。
 
SECTION 7. RIGHT OF CONTRIBUTION AND INDEMNITY; THIRD-PARTY ACTION.
 
(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b), a party that is jointly and severally liable with one or more other parties under this [act] has a right of contribution from another party jointly liable for any amount the party pays in excess of the several amount for which the party is responsible. A party against which contribution is sought is not liable for more than the monetary amount of the party’s several share of responsibility determined pursuant to Section 5.
 
(b) A party that is adjudged liable for the act or omission of another party under Section 6(3) has a right of indemnification from the other party.
 
(c) A party that is subject to liability for injury to, or harm to property of, a claimant under this [act] has a right:
 
(1) to join a person that is also subject to liability to the claimant for all or part of the same injury or harm if the claimant has not sued the person; and
 
(2) to seek contribution or indemnity, whichever is appropriate, from another person whose liability is not determined in the proceeding in which the party is adjudged liable if the other person is responsible for all or part of the claimant’s injury or harm.
 
(d) A claim for contribution or indemnity may be asserted in the original action or in a separate action.
 
第8条免责的效力
 
(a)一份免责(协议),约定不起诉,或约定不执行判决,或请求权人与面临承担责任的人之间的类似协议,免除了该人在协议涉及范围内对请求权人的责任和面临来自任何其他对同一损害或者损失请求权人承担责任人的责任分担。该协议并不同时免除任何其他面临对同一请求承担责任的人,除非该协议有规定。
 
(b)根据本条(a)款免除责任者的本应负责并与他人因同一损害或者损失承担连带责任的被请求数额,应该根据基于本法第4条归属于被免责人的责任百分比而相应减少。
 
(c)一份免责(协议),约定不起诉,或约定不执行判决,或类似协议,将消灭被免责人向本来应该与其承担连带责任的任何他人的分担或者补偿请求权。
 
SECTION 8. EFFECT OF RELEASE.
 
(a) A release, covenant not to sue, covenant not to execute a judgment, or similar agreement by a claimant and person subject to liability discharges the person from liability to the claimant to the extent provided in the agreement and from liability for contribution to any other person subject to liability to the claimant for the same injury or harm. The agreement does not discharge any other person subject to liability upon the same claim unless the agreement so provides.
 
(b) The amount of the claim of the releasing person under subsection (a) against other persons jointly and severally liable for the same injury or harm for which the released person would have been liable is reduced by the percentage of responsibility attributed to the released person pursuant to Section 4.
 
(c) A release, covenant not to sue, covenant not to execute a judgment, or similar agreement extinguishes any claim for contribution or indemnity that the released person would have had against another person that would have been jointly and severally liable with the released person.
 
(第9条劳动赔偿优先权的减少与代位权;通知和介入)
 
(a)如果雇主或者工人的赔偿保险人基于(插入对规定雇主或者工人赔偿保险人对雇员处于因第三方造成的人身损害侵权诉讼中已经支付或可支付给雇员的赔偿利益的保险人优先权或者代位权的劳动赔偿法律的引用)主张优先权或者代位权,雇主或者保险人便被认为已经根据本法第8条被免除了对雇员的已经支付或可支付赔偿利益的义务,就好像雇主或者保险人获得了一项免责,约定不起诉,或约定不执行判决,或者与雇员达成了一项类似协议。在这样的情况下,雇主本应为雇员的损害负责的责任百分比,如果雇主没有因为工人赔偿法而免责,必须如同基于本法第4条被免责的人一样被确定,同时在雇员对第三人的诉讼中如果存在的优先权或者代位权,也会按照雇主的责任百分比的金钱数量减少。
 
(b)一方主张因为雇主的过错而导致雇主或者劳动赔偿保险人的优先权或者代位权应该基于本条(a)款减少,必须通知对雇主或者工人赔偿保险人。在这样的情况下,雇主或者保险人可能介入雇员的人身损害诉讼。
 
立法指南:如果本条没有作为本法的一部分被颁布或者作为工人赔偿法的修正案颁布,本条(a)款参见本法第8条和本法第4条的规定就应该被改写为对本法各条文的正确参见条文。
 
[SECTION 9. REDUCTION OF WORKERS’ COMPENSATION LIEN AND SUBROGATION RIGHT; NOTICE AND INTERVENTION.
 
(a) If an employer or workers’ compensation insurer asserts a lien or right of subrogation under [insert citation to workers’ compensation statute that provides for an employer’s or workers’ compensation insurer’s lien or right of subrogation for compensation benefits paid or payable to an employee when the employee has a tort action for personal injury against a third party], the employer or insurer is deemed to have had its obligation to the employee for the compensation benefits paid or payable discharged under Section 8 as if the employer or insurer had received a release, covenant not to sue, or covenant not to execute a judgment from, or entered a similar agreement with, the employee. In such a case, any percentage of responsibility that the employer would have had for the employee’s injury, were the employer not immune under the workers’ compensation law, must be determined as that of a released person pursuant to Section 4 and the lien or right of subrogation is reduced by the monetary amount of the employer’s percentage of responsibility, if any, in the employee’s action against the third party.
 
(b) A party asserting that an employer’s or workers’ compensation insurer’s lien or right of subrogation should be reduced under subsection (a) because of the employer’s fault shall give notice to the employer or workers’ compensation insurer. In that case, the employer or insurer may intervene in the employee’s action for personal injury.
 
Legislative Note: If this section is not enacted as part of this Act but is enacted as an amendment to the workers’ compensation statutes, the cross references to Section 8 and to Section 4 in subsection (a) need to be reworded to accurately refer to the respective sections of this Act.]
 
第10条适用与解释的统一
 
在适用和解释本统一法时,必须对促进在颁布本法的州关于本法主旨的法律统一予以考虑。
 
SECTION 10. UNIFORMITY OF APPLICATION AND CONSTRUCTION.
 
In applying and construing this Uniform Act, consideration must be given to the need to promote uniformity of the law with respect to its subject matter among states that enact it.
 
第11条可分性条款
 
如果本法的任何条款或者本法对任何人或者特定时间的适用被认为无效,该无效性并不影响其他条款或在除去无效条款或适用情形的本法适用,本法的各条款始终是可分的。
 
SECTION 11. SEVERABILITY CLAUSE.
 
If any provision of this [act] or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the invalidity does not affect other provisions or applications of this [act] which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of this [act] are severable.
 
第12条适用性
 
本法在最初颁布或者生效日期后可适用于诉讼。
 
SECTION 12. APPLICABILITY.
 
This [act] applies to actions originally filed on or after its effective date.
 
第13条生效日期
 
本法自××年×月×日起生效。
 
SECTION 13. EFFECTIVE DATE.
 
This [act] takes effect on ....
 
第14条废止
 
以下法律和法律部分条文被废止:
 
(1) ....
 
(2) ....
 
(3) ....
 
SECTION 14. REPEALS.
 
The following acts and parts of acts are repealed:
 
(1) ....
 
(2) ....
 
(3) ....

注释:
英文中,“contributory”和“comparative”均与过错(fault)、过失(negligence)搭配,笔者认为,我国台湾地区“与有过失”的译法,不符合中文用语习惯而不予采纳,应统一将前者翻译为“助成”,后者翻译为“比较”,以方便读者了解原文。
    
     Individual,直译为个体,在此处意译为自然人。
    
     business trust笔者译为企业联合,以区别于trust。
    
     英美法上的遗产在诉讼中可具有主体地位。
    
     本译文重,为区别于plaintiff(原告),claimant直译为“请求权人”。
    
     worker 翻译为“工人”,以区别于劳工(labor)。
    
     Be subject to,在本译文中,笔者翻译为“面临”。
    
     根据本条官方评论,被分配给原告、被告和被免责人的总百分比应该是100%。
    
     根据本条官方评论,本项确定事实的意义在于根据本法第6条是否需要适用连带责任抑或按份责任。
    
     enter  judgment是判决登记的意思,是指将判决正式登录于法院的诉讼卷册中,是书记官进行的行政性行为而非司法行为。
    
     根据本条官方评论,过错的程度,无论基于过失还是严格责任,因果关系的接近性都是不可避免的被同时考虑。(b)款规定的是基本侵权法的公理(subsection (b) states an axiom of basic tort law)。
    
     根据本条官方评论,主要适用于各种商业组织的雇主与雇工之间等替代责任情形,但也同时适用于机动车所有人和被许可使用人、产品制造者与分销商之间的情形。
    
     Motion是申请、提议的意思,本译文译为“申请”
    
     joint share 与 combined share有所不同。前者因为是基于共同行为或者故意行为,所以责任本来就是共同的,而后者的责任本来是分别的,但因为一方未能组织另一方故意侵权,因此翻译为“合并”以体现本来的分别状态,区别于“共同”,更为恰当。
    
     根据本条官方评论,主要适用于各州的环境伤害事故(in the area of environmental harm)。
    
     所谓第三人诉讼,是指区别于本诉的诉讼,目的在于是对或可能对本诉中原告向被告提出的请求承担全部或者部分责任的第三人加入到诉讼中来。参见《元照》1342。
    
     译者注:原文为“Section 6(3)”,应是指出第6条(a)款的第3项。
    
     lien,留置权或优先权,为了避免与我国《担保法》中留置权概念混淆,译为“优先权”。
    
     根据本条官方评论,之所以第9条在括号中,是因为在某些州通过这样的方式修正劳工赔偿法是没有法律上的可能性。如果本条无法被采纳,那么本法的条文序号将被重新编排。
    
     Uniform Act,为便于读者了解原意,特别翻译为“统一法”,并非国家统一,乃是法律统一之意。
    
     to the end是始终的意思。
  
 
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1060  美国统一州法委员会《统一侵权责任分担法》[中英文对照参考译本]
 
 
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